C shell Wikipedia. The C shell csh or the improved version, tcsh is a Unix shell created by Bill Joy while he was a graduate student at University of California, Berkeley in the late 1. It has been widely distributed, beginning with the 2. BSD release of the Berkeley Software Distribution BSD that Joy began distributing in 1. Other early contributors to the ideas or the code were Michael Ubell, Eric Allman, Mike OBrien and Jim Kulp. The C shell is a command processor typically run in a text window, allowing the user to type commands. The C shell can also read commands from a file, called a script. Like all Unix shells, it supports filename wildcarding, piping, here documents, command substitution, variables and control structures for condition testing and iteration. What differentiated the C shell from others, especially in the 1. Its new features made it easier and faster to use. The overall style of the language looked more like C and was seen as more readable. On many systems, such as Mac OS X and Red Hat Linux, csh is actually tcsh, an improved version of csh. Often one of the two files is either a hard link or a symbolic link to the other, so that either name refers to the same improved version of the C shell. On Debian and some derivatives including Ubuntu, there are two different packages csh and tcsh. The former is based on the original BSD version of csh56 and the latter is the improved tcsh. Tenex system, which is the source of the t. Because it only added functionality and did not change what was there, tcsh remained backward compatible1. C shell. Though it started as a side branch from the original source tree Joy had created, tcsh is now the main branch for ongoing development. Design objectives and featureseditThe main design objectives for the C shell were that it should look more like the C programming language and that it should be better for interactive use. More like CeditThe Unix system had been written almost exclusively in C, so the C shells first objective was a command language that was more stylistically consistent with the rest of the system. The keywords, the use of parentheses and the C shells built in expression grammar and support for arrays were all strongly influenced by C. By todays standards, csh may not seem particularly more C like than many other popular scripting languages. But through the 8. Bourne shell also known as sh, the then dominant shell written by Stephen Bourne at Bell Labs. This example illustrates the C shells more conventional expression operators and syntax. Bourne shellbinshifdays gt 3. This is over a year. C shellbincshifdays 3. This is over a year. The square bracketed condition had to be evaluated by the slower means of running the external test program. If the child exited with a zero return code, sh would look for a then clause a separate statement, but often written joined on the same line with a semicolon and run that nested block. Otherwise it would run the else. Hard linking the test program as both test and gave the notational advantage of the square brackets and the appearance that the functionality of test was part of the sh language. ALGOL 6. 8. 1. 2By contrast, csh could evaluate the expression directly, which made it faster. It also claimed better readability Its expressions used a grammar and a set of operators mostly copied from C, none of its keywords were reversed and the overall style was also more like C. Here is a second example, comparing scripts that calculate the first 1. Bourne shellbinshi2j1whilej le 1. C shellbincshset i 2. Perldoc. perl. org Official documentation for the Perl programming language. Resolved Problems. The following sections describe problems that have been resolved by Service Packs for WebLogic Server 6. Service Packs are cumulative the. Ksh Unix, Linux Command Manual Pages Manpages, Learning fundamentals of UNIX and Linux in simple and easy steps A beginners tutorial containing complete. Response Surface Methodology Software there. Complete Technical Acronyms, Glossary Definitions for PC, SAN, NAS, QA, Testing, HDTV, Wireless, Linux, Embedded, Networks, Video, Digital, pharma, Unix, Video. Again because of the lack of an expression grammar, the sh script uses command substitution and the expr command. Finally, here is a third example, showing the differing styles for a switch statement. Bourne shellbinshfor i in d. C shellbincshforeach i dswitchicase d. In the sh script, marks the end of each case because sh disallows null statements otherwise. Improvements for interactive useeditThe second objective was that the C shell should be better for interactive use. It introduced numerous new features that made it easier, faster and more friendly to use by typing commands at a terminal. Users could get things done with a lot fewer keystrokes and it ran faster. The most significant of these new features were the history and editing mechanisms, aliases, directory stacks, tilde notation, cdpath, job control and path hashing. These new features proved very popular, and many of them have since been copied by other Unix shells. HistoryeditHistory allows users to recall previous commands and rerun them by typing only a few quick keystrokes. For example, two exclamation marks,, typed as a command and referred to as bang, bang, causes the immediately preceding command to run. Other short keystroke combinations, e. Editing operatorseditEditing can be done not only on the text of a previous command, but also on variable substitutions. Operators range from simple string searchreplace to parsing a pathname to extract a specific segment. Find-Filesystem-Type-inLinux.png' alt='Ksh Test Zero Byte File' title='Ksh Test Zero Byte File' />AliaseseditAliases allow the user to type the name of an alias and have the C shell expand it internally into whatever set of words the user has defined. Vista Kiara Management Office more. For many simple situations, aliases run faster and are more convenient than scripts. Directory stackeditThe directory stack allows the user to push or pop the current working directory, making it easier to jump back and forth between different places in the filesystem. Tilde notationeditTilde notation offers a shorthand way of specifying pathnames relative to the home directory using the character. Filename completioneditThe escape key can be used interactively to show possible completions of a filename at the end of the current command line. Cdpath extends the notion of a search path to the cd change directory command If the specified directory isnt in the current directory, csh will try to find it in the cdpath directories. Job controleditWell into the 1. The C shells job control allowed the user to suspend the current activity and create a new instance of the C shell, called a job, by typing Z. The user could then switch back and forth between jobs using the fg command. The active job was said to be in the foreground. Other jobs were said to be either suspended stopped or running in the background. Path hashingeditPath hashing speeds up the C shells search for executable files. Rather than performing a filesystem call in each path directory, one at a time, until it either finds the file or runs out of possibilities, the C shell consults an internal hash table built by scanning the path directories. That table can usually tell the C shell where to find the file if it exists without having to search, and can be refreshed with the rehash command. Overview of the languageeditThe C shell operates one line at a time. Each line is tokenized into a set of words separated by spaces or other characters with special meaning, including parentheses, piping and inputoutput redirection operators, semicolons, and ampersands. Basic statementseditA basic statement is one that simply runs a command. The first word is taken as name of the command to be run and may be either an internal command, e. The rest of the words are passed as arguments to the command. How do I send a file as an email attachment using Linux command line Send a Plaintext body email with one plaintext attachment with mailx. Body of text. mailx s Subject youremailgmail. Below is the same command as above, without the newlines usrbinuuencode homeelattachfile. Body of text mailx s Subject youremailgmail. Make sure you have a file homeelattachfile. Government discriminates against programmers with cruelunusual 3. If you dont have uuencode read this https unix. On Linux, Send HTML body email with a PDF attachment with sendmail Make sure you have ksh installed yum info ksh. Make sure you have sendmail installed and configured. Make sure you have uuencode installed and available https unix. Make a new file called test. Put the following code in test. MAILFROMeldefiant. MAILTOyouremailgmail. SUBJECTTest PDF for Email. BODYhomeelemailbody. ATTACHhomeelpdf test. MAILPARTuuidgen Generates Unique ID. MAILPARTBODYuuidgen Generates Unique ID. From MAILFROM. To MAILTO. Subject SUBJECT. MIME Version 1. Content Type multipartmixed boundaryMAILPART. MAILPART. echo Content Type multipartalternative boundaryMAILPARTBODY. MAILPARTBODY. echo Content Type textplain charsetISO 8. You need to enable HTML option for email. MAILPARTBODY. echo Content Type texthtml charsetISO 8. Content Disposition inline. MAILPARTBODY. MAILPART. Content Type applicationpdf namebasename ATTACH. Content Transfer Encoding uuencode. Content Disposition attachment filenamebasename ATTACH. ATTACH basename ATTACH. MAILPART. usrsbinsendmail MAILTO. Change the export variables on the top of test. Download a test pdf document and put it in homeel called pdf test. Make a file called homeelemailbody. Make sure the pdf file has sufficient 7. Eurostar Receiver Manual here. Run the script. test. Check your email inbox, the text should be in HTML format and the pdf file automatically interpreted as a binary file. Take care not to use this function more than say 1. And youll find this no longer works, or it only lets through the attachment, or the email doesnt come through at all. If you have to do a lot of testing on this, spread them out over days or youll be labelled a spammer and this function wont work any more.